A Complete Detailed Analysis of Pakistan-made Drones and UAV’s!

Pakistan’s indigenous UAVs: Uqaab, Jasoos, Mukhbar & Burraq

Posted on by Moin Ansari

| PAKISTAN LEDGER | پاکستاني کھاتا | April 20th, 2008  | Moin Ansari | معین آنصآرّی | Page copy protected against web site content infringement by Copyscape | RUPEE NEWS | Moin Ansari | April 20th, 2008  | معین آنصآرّی | اخبار روپیہ | When the war on terror began, Pakistan requested predator drones for the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) so that the Pakistanis could monitor the 2500 kilometer long Durand Line. The request was refused. Pakistan also requested helicopters, and asked the USA to launch a satellite for Pakistan. The requests fell on deaf ears. Pakistan also requested 80,000 M-16s or Klashnikovs for the Frontier Corps who are still using WW2 vintage rifles. The guns have still not arrived. However Pakistan was asked to “Do More.”

Pakistan as a Major Non-Nato Ally (MNNA) and a founding member of SEATO and CENTO has not been given a single Predator or Reaper. Pakistan has an indigenous UAV capacity, but its drones cannot fire armaments. At present the laser guided technology helps it to identify targets and then relay that information to a helicopter gunship or a plane. Islamabad is in desperate need of UAV which can fire at the target. Need predicates development, and necessity is the mother of invention. It is like being under sanction. Pakistan was under sanctions when it designed and built the JF-17 Thunder with the Chinese. Now the latest UAVis being built with Turkish and Chinese help. Pakistan’s latest UAV is called the Burraq named after a mythical flying horse.

ISLAMABAD — After years of watching U.S. drones operate along its Afghan border, Pakistan is working on its own Predator-like unmanned aerial vehicle to undertake the same mission, sources here said.  The sources said the country’s air force and government-owned defense conglomerate, the National Engineering and Scientific Commission, are flight-testing a new-design aircraft to be equipped with a NESCom-designed laser designator and laser-guided missiles. The Burraq UAV is named for a winged horse creature in Islamic tradition, similar to Pegasus.

According to local news reports, Pakistan is focusing its unmanned aircraft efforts on upgrading various older UAVs with Chinese help. But the sources note that no domestically produced UAVis large enough to heft both a missile and a targeting system. The military’s most capable UAV is the air force’s Selex Galileo Falco, which can laser-designate targets for other platforms but cannot deliver munitions.

Officials with the Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Defence Production here refused to confirm or deny the program’s existence. A spokesman for the military’s Inter Services Public Relations said it was “not ready to give a statement on the issue at this time.” One former air force officer said the notion of a Pakistan-developed hunter-killer UAV is credible. “You only have to see our track record,” said Kaiser Tufail, a retired air commodore. “We have some fantastic achievements in the field of defense.”

Tufail said Pakistan needs such a weapon. Anti-terror operations on the frontier require “hours and hours of round-the-clock reconnaissance,” married with the ability to strike quickly when a target is spotted, he said. Help from China? Analysts were more dubious about Pakistan’s ability to produce a laser-guided missile, but they noted that help might be found in China or Turkey. Turkey, with whom Pakistan has an agreement to cooperate on UAV development, is seeking an armed UAV, preferably the Predator or MQ-9 Reaper. This UAVmay someday be armed with the UMTAS infrared guided anti-tank missile being developed by the Turkish firm Roketsan to arm the T-129 attack helicopter.

Pakistan could simply produce China’s new CH-3 unmanned combat air vehicle, “or co-produce any number of Chinese components to assemble a unique UCAV,” said Richard Fisher, China specialist and senior fellow at the International Assessment and Strategy Center in Washington. “China has also developed the unique AR-1, a 45-kilogram, laser-guided attack missile, apparently designed specifically for light winged or helicopter UCAVs,” he said. Pakistan reported developing armed UAV By Usman Ansari – Staff writer, Saturday May 9, 2009 8:17:26 EDT

The Burraq is based on the Falco – SELEX GALILEO technology. We produce information on the Selix Galileo so that an adequate comparision can be made with the Burraq.

The FALCO UAV System is a Medium Altitude Endurance & Tactical UAV designed for optronic and electronic surveillance roles. The basic mission is target detection, localization, identification and designation through its on-board sensors suite which typically include a thermal imager, a color TV Camera and a spotter, or a laser designator.

The best features of the FALCO System include automatic take-off and landing (with STOL performance), fully redundant and fault-tolerant control systems, digital buses and control link equipment, automatic area surveillance modes and near-real-time target image processing.

It really look very mush like the uqab or may be author is citing directly to uqab or if someone can tell they are using the Falco – SELEX GALILEO

The Burraq also uses the design if the Pegasus HALE UAV. The information on the Burraq is similar to the information on the Hale.

Until today, the use of unmanned aircraft has been hindered by the sheer size of the wingspan needed to carry the weight of the payload. With payloads often weighing up to 100 kg, the wingspan required would extend to 60 or 70 metres, creating a total weight of as much as 1000 kg. Aircraft with this weight and wingspan will not become operational for the next couple of years due to issues of air traffic control, safety regulations and technological hurdles such as the development of appropriate fuel cell technology.

We bring you Pegasus, an integrated approach to mission-specific payload, aircraft, control systems and data processing technology. By developing a new generation of ultra light and extremely compact remote sensing equipment, we have been able to reduce the aircraft wingspan to just 16 metres and total flying weight to a mere 18 kg. Furthermore, because these aircraft are designed to be raised into place using the same kind of balloon that is used for weather sounding, no airstrips are required and air control regulations do not apply. The aircaft are taken up in an almost vertical position and reach their operational altitude within 90 minutes. Once in place, the solar powered engines are started and the aircraft is ready to act on instructions received from ground control. The recorded images are then sent to the central database at the ground station from where they are sent on to the customer. Using highly sophisticated software technology, the data can also be processed and analysed, and delivered in a wide variety of graphical and mapped formats, as required.

Pakistan has been using its own drones which it has been manufacturing for a decade.

Pakistan UAVs: This article is Rupee News-RIR (RN-Research in Progress) and will be updated periodically.

..there are several public sector companies involved in developing UAVs in Pakistan, including the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC), Air Weapons Complex (AWC) and National Development Complex (NDC). 

The PAC’s Uqaabdrone is in use by the Pakistan Army, and, according to unconfirmed reports, is being upgraded with Chinese help to carry a weapons payload. Other PAC UAVs include the Bazz and Ababeel. AWC’s Bravo+ UAV is in use of the Pakistan Airforce (PAF). The PAF recently acquired an unarmed Italian drone called the Falco UAV, which is reportedly being used for surveillance and battleground assessments in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. In 2008, the Pakistan Navy also reportedly completed trials of UAVs – the Austrian Schiebel Camcopter S-100 and Swedish Cybaero – from a Pakistani frigate in the Arabian Sea.

Private sector companies are also involved in the design and development of UAVs. Apart from ID in Karachi, East-West Infinity (EWI), Satuma and Global Industrial Defense Solutions (GIDS) are in the drone-making business.

The EWI’s Heliquad UAV is considered a stealth design because of its small size and Whisper Watch signals intelligence package, which is capable of picking up radio and other communication signals. ID’s Nishan Mk1 and TJ1000, Vision MK1 & MK2, Tornado, Border Eagle, Hornet, Hawk and Vector are also popular models employed by the armed forces for reconnaissance missions and target practice (each model varies in range and endurance). Satuma’s UAVs, with similar functionalities, are called Flamingo, Jasoos and Mukhbar. For its part, the GIDS develops the Huma-1 UAV and its own version of the Uqaab.

Even though almost all UAVs in the country have been built for military applications – reconnaissance, simulations, decoy systems, remote sensing – none of them are reported to be capable of firing arms. Moreover, none of the above-mentioned facilities are involved in large-scale, mass production of UAVs.Dawn. Drones: Made in Pakistan By Salman Siddiqui Friday, 24 Apr, 2009 | 10:23 PM PST |

High Speed Drone

This is picture of Pakistan high speed drone which is under wraps.

The latest Uqaab is one in a series of Unmanned Aircraft being deveopled by Pakistan. Pakistan has been working very closesly with the Turks who have had access to Israeli technology on UAV development.

US Shadow similar to Pakistan\'s UqaabMarch 24, 2008: Pakistan announced the successful completion of flight tests of a new UAV, the Uqaab. The design looks very similar to models offered by a Pakistani firm, Integrated Dynamics, which has been producing smaller (under 500 pounds) UAVs for the government and commercial market since 1997. The Uqaab also appears similar to the U.S. Army RQ-7B Shadow 200. Each Shadow 200 UAV platoon has 22 troops and operates 3-4 UAVs, plus the ground control equipment. Typically, each combat brigade has one Shadow UAV platoon. Each 350 pound Shadow 200 UAV cost $500,000, and can stay in the air 5.5 hours per sortie. A day camera and night vision camera is carried on each aircraft. Able to fly as high as 15,000 feet, the Shadow can thus go into hostile territory and stay high enough (over 10,000 feet) to be safe from hostile rifle and machine-gun fire.

The Integrated Dynamics UAVs appear to operate in a manner similar to the Shadow 200, which is not high tech, just good engineering and quality manufacturing. Integrated Dynamics has many export customers, including some in the United States.

Integrated Dynamics provides design, consultancy and turn-key project commissioning for Unmanned Autonomous Vehicle (UAV) systems. We can assist you from the ground up in the rapid completion of your project from the conceptual stage to actual proto type flight tests in the shortest possible time.

Integrated Dynamics a full supply source for everything you need to get a UAV/RPV project in the air including Platforms, Flight control systems, C4I systems, Data links, Payloads, Ground Support Equipment, We also provide a full line of accessories such as Ground Support Equipment (GSE), APU’s, Starters, Battery management systems, and Launch and Recovery systems.

Our new ‘Civilian UAV’ systems are designed for electronic news gathering, police surveillance, border and coastal patrol requiring no more than two crew members to operate.

We are also offering ‘Airframes Only’ for most of our field-proven and tested UAV designs to assist research and experimental work across the globe in specialised UAV applications.

With over 90,000 square feet of dedicated manufacturing space, INTEGRATED DYNAMICS is proud of being one of the largest UAV-dedicated R&D and manufacturing enterprises in Australasia.

Export restrictions apply. The sale of certain products is subject to an end-user certification and approval by the Government of Pakistan and DEPO (Defence Export Promotion Organization).

RQ-7a similar to Pakistan\'s UqaabAAI

RQ-7 Shadow 200

The Shadow 200 short-range TUAV (Tactical UAV) was developed by AAI Corp. in the 1990s. When the RQ-6 Outrider TUAV ran into continued troubles in the 1997/98 time frame, the U.S. Army decided to conduct a competitive evaluation between the Outrider and Shadow 200 TUAV systems in 1999. The latter was declared winner of this competition, and AAI subsequently received a first LRIP (Low-Rate Initial Production) contract to provide Shadow 200 systems for further testing and evaluation. The UAV itself was officially designated RQ-7A. Between April 2001 and late 2002, the IOT&E (Initial Operational Test & Evaluation) phase of the program was conducted successfully, and in October 2002 the Shadow 200 was approved for full-rate production.

Photo: AAI RQ-7A

RQ 7A1 similar to Pakistan\'s UqaabThe RQ-7A is of the same twin-boom pusher layout as several other battlefield UAVs, like e.g. the RQ-2 Pioneer and the RQ-5 Hunter. It is powered by a UEL AR-741 rotary engine, and has a non-retractable tricycle landing gear for conventional wheeled take-off and landing. The RQ-7A can also be launched from a catapult and has a tailhook to catch arresting cables for a shorter landing run. A Shadow 200 system consists of four RQ-7A air vehicles and the associated equipment.

The latter includes two GCSs (Ground Control Stations), from where the operators have full control over the UAVs and their sensors. Both LOS (Line-Of-Sight) and non-LOS datalinks are provided for command uplink and sensor data downlink. The Shadow 200 UAVcan be equipped with a GPS-based navigation system for fully autonomous operations. The UAV’s tasks include day/night reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition and BDA (Bomb Damage Assessment). The primary mission payload for the initial (Block 1) RQ-7A production vehicles is an IAI Tamam POP (Plug-In Optronic Payload) IR/EO (Infrared/Electro-Optical) sensor turret, but Block 2 vehicles are planned to use an improved Wescam EO/IR sensor. Other payloads are also under consideration, including a SAR/MTI (Synthetic Aperture Radar/Moving Target Indicator) unit. Photo: U.S. Army RQ-7A

By March 2004, the U.S. Army has ordered 33 Shadow 200 systems (4 aircraft each) plus a number of additional air vehicles as attrition replacements. 20 systems have been delivered, and current procurement plans call for a total of up to 88 systems.

In August 2004, the improved RQ-7B air vehicle began to roll off from AAI’s production line. The RQ-7B has larger wings witha more efficient airfoil and increased fuel capacity, allowing an endurance of up to 7 hours. Additionally, the vehicle has an enlarged tail, upgraded avionics (including an improved flight controller with an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) and increased computing power), and new payload options. The RQ-7B will also be fitted with the Army’s Tactical Common Data Link (TCDL).

Specifications: Note: Data given by several sources show slight variations. Figures given below may therefore be inaccurate!

Data for RQ-7A/B: 

  • Length 3.40 m (11 ft 2 in)
  • Wingspan 3.89 m (12 ft 9 in) 4.27 m (14 ft)
  • Height 0.91 m (3 ft 0 in)
  • Weight max: 149 kg (328 lb); empty: 75 kg (165 lb) max: 170 kg (375 lb)
  • Speed max: 204 km/h (110 knots); loiter: 130 km/h (70 knots) max: 194 km/h (105 knots); loiter: 111 km/h (60 knots)
  • Ceiling 4270 m (14000 ft) 4570 m (15000 ft)
  • Range 125 km (67 nm)
  • Endurance 5 h 7 h
  • Propulsion UEL AR-741 rotary engine; 28.3 kW (38 hp)

Main Sources
[1] Kenneth Munson (ed.): “Jane’s Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Targets, Issue 15″, Jane’s, 2000
[2] Tom Kaminski: “The Future is Here”, article in Combat Aircraft Vol. 4, No. 6, 2003
[3] AAI Corp. Website
[4] PR Newswire Story, 4 August 2004
[5] “Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap, 2005-2030″, Office of the Secretary of Defense, August 2005

Shadow 200 RQ-7 – Tactical Unmanned Aircraft System, USA: Shadow 200 is the smallest of the Shadow family of unmanned aircraft systems developed by AAI. It is in operational service with the US Army and US Marine Corps.

Shadow 200 is the smallest of the Shadow family of unmanned aircraft systems developed by AAI.”Shadow 200 is used to locate, recognise and identify targets up to 125km from a brigade tactical operations centre. The system recognises tactical vehicles by day and night from an altitude of 8,000ft and at a slant range of 3.5km.

Imagery and telemetry data is transmitted in near-real time from the Shadow ground control station to joint stars common ground station, all-sources analysis system and to the army field artillery targeting and direction system.

Shadow is in operational service in Afghanistan and in Iraq. By the end of December 2007, it had amassed more than 234,000 flight hours and flown in more than 55,000 missions.

The Shadow family of unmanned aircraft systems is produced at AAI’s facilities in Hunt Valley, Maryland. AAI Corporation is a subsidiary of United Industrial Corporation.


The AAI Shadow TUAS team is led by the prime contractor AAICorporation with major team members CDL Systems Ltd, Chandler May Inc, Sierra Nevada Corporation, IAI-TAMAM and UAV Engines Ltd. The programme is managed by the US army unmanned aircraft systems project manager’s office in Huntsville, Alabama.

In 1999 the United States Army awarded AAI Corporation a Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) contract to develop the Shadow Tactical Unmanned Aircraft System (TUAS). The Shadow TUAS carries the US Army designations RQ-7A and RQ-7B, although all RQ- 7A model aircraft have now been retired and replaced by the RQ-7B model. The system provides brigade commanders with improved capability in target acquisition, battle damage assessment and battle management.

“The Shadow family of unmanned aircraft systems is produced at AAI’s facilities in Hunt Valley, Maryland.”At the beginning of 2001, AAI delivered the first four Shadow TUAV systems ordered by the US Army and built under the LRIP phase of the programme.

The United States Government conducted a series of demonstration trials under the Operational Tempo (OPTEMPO) programme at Fort Huachucaa, Arizona during 2001. The Shadow systems were then transferred to Fort Hood in Texas for the US Army to carry out Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOTE) trials.

In March 2002, AAI received a contract valued at $22.3m to extend TUAS production, bringing the value of the TUAV program to $135m. The contract covered the production of five additional Shadow systems. The first full-rate system was delivered to the US Army in September 2003. Shadow was deployed to Iraq in January 2004.

In the first quarter of 2004, the US Army ordered 33 Shadow systems with over 140 air vehicles and delivery of the longer-range RQ-7B was started by August 2004.

By June 2007, the US Army had ordered 74 Shadow 200 systems (including 296 air vehicles and 148 ground control systems) for system deliveries through January 2009. A further 14 were ordered in December 2007. 61 systems have been delivered.

Also in June 2007, it was announced that Shadow 200 will replace the Pioneer UAV in US Marine Corps service by the end of the year. Two systems have been ordered for the USMC.


A typical block1 Shadow system includes three air vehicles (plus one spare air vehicle) with payloads, two ground control stations, portable ground control station, air vehicle transport truck, launch and recovery equipment and personnel carrier. The complete system can be transported to and within a battlefield in two C-130 aircraft.

“Shadow 200 is used to locate, recognise and identify targets up to 125km from a brigade tactical operations centre.”


The air vehicle system can be transported by two military wheeled vehicles and can be operated round-the-clock from unprepared sites by the 22-soldier crew. The Shadow TUAS can carry payloads up to 27kg (60lb) including sensors and electronic warfare systems.

Larger variants of other Shadow aircraft with a larger fuselage and wingspan are capable of carrying payloads up to 45.4kg (100lb) with minimal impact on cost or performance.

The air vehicle is of composite structure. Its compact size and small engine produce a very low radar and infrared signature, making it very difficult to detect.

The original RQ-7A air vehicle has a wingspan of 3.89m and carries a maximum payload of 25.3kg. The maximum endurance is five hours 30 minutes. The RQ-7B is a longer-endurance version, with increased wingspan of 4.27m and larger tail unit, payload up to 27.2kg and endurance of six to seven hours, depending on mission profile.


The air vehicle is powered by a UEL AR 741 rotary engine developing 28.3kW and driving a two-bladed pusher propeller. Fire and explosion-resistant fuel cells are installed in the wings. The RQ-7A and the longer-endurance RQ-7B models have a fuel capacity of 40l and 57l.


The payloads are selected according to the mission requirements and include advanced electro-optical and infrared systems, planned synthetic aperture radar and moving target indicator, hyperspectral imagery, lightweight communications relay package, marker / illuminator, laser range finder and target designator.

“The compact size and small engine produce a very low radar and infrared signature.”The US Army Shadow 200 is fitted with the POP-200 or POP-300 lightweight electro-optical system supplied by IAI Tamam.

The system is two-axis gyro-stabilised and fitted with Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) and CCD TV sensor array. It can be fitted with a laser rangefinder and target designator and is capable of correlative automatic target tracking.

BAE Systems has supplied five Aurora Generation IV remote sensing systems to the US Army for use on the Shadow 200. The systems provide target detection and wide-area surveillance, using daytime hyperspectral imaging from high-resolution electro-optic sensors.

In February 2008, it was announced that the US Army is installing Falcon III AN/PRC-152 radios, supplied by Harris Corporation RF Communications Division, in Shadow 200 UAVs. The radios, which have SINCGARS capability, will act as part of a relay system to extend the communication range for ground troops with obstructed line-of-sight.


The launch of the Shadow 200 TUAS can be conducted in two ways allowing the military personnel the flexibility to choose the most appropriate launch site during field operations. A standard wheeled take-off procedure can be used or the air vehicle can be launched from a hydraulic rail launcher.

The guidance of the air vehicle can be pre-programmed before take-off or remotely controlled during the flight.

The air vehicle climbs at a rate of 300m to 450m (1,000ft to 1,500ft) a minute. The vehicle has a cruise speed and quick-dash speed of 148km/h to 250km/h (80kt to 135kt) to proceed to the operating area. Its minimum speed is 111km/h (60 kt).

The Shadow TUASair vehicle can use a conventional wheeled landing on a flat surface about 95m in length. An alternative recovery method uses a deployable arresting hook on the air vehicle and ground based arresting cables.


CDL Systems Ltd, based in Calgary, Alberta, was contracted to develop the vehicle control system software. The Ground Control Station (GCS) is a sheltered ruggedisedportable system with a suite of vehicle control and C4I interface software. The ground control segment of the system has been developed by AAI using pre-existing and proven hardware and software components. The software was modified to meet the operational requirements of the TUAV program.

The Portable Ground Control Station (PGCS), one of the units of the ground control system, is installed in a set of rugged transit cases.

“The Shadow air vehicle can be pre-programmed before take-off or remotely controlled during the flight.”The rugged transit cases are easily transported and allow the PGCS to be rapidly set up and torn down in the field. The Ground Data Terminal (GDT), that includes transmit and receive units and an antenna system, is easily set up without tools.

The PGCS and GDT are used to control the launch of the air vehicle, operation of the payload, the reception and display of the downloaded data from the sensors on the airborne platform and for the recovery of the air vehicle.

The forward battle commanders can view the area under surveillance using a Remote Video Terminal (RVT). The RVT displays the observed view on a flat-panel screen display in near-real time. AAI Corporation developed the Airborne Video Surveillance (AVS) capability demonstrated on the Shadow TUAS, with the US DOD Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).


Pakistani models

In 2004 Pakistan produced a UAV called Jasoos 2.
Jasoos 2
Jasoos II is a state of the art UAV to be employed for real time information and situational awareness. Bravo+, variant of Jasoos II UAV has been inducted in the Pakistan Air Force. Since its induction in Pakistan Air Force in 2004, Bravo+ has proven to be very reliable system that is extremely easy to operate and maintain. The UAV takeoff and land conventionally from a runway under manual control. Once airborne the UAV can fly autonomously where as mission can be controlled using line-of-site data links. JasoosII can carry a variety of controllable payloads of up to 20 Kg with an endurance of greater than 4 to 5 hours. The standard variant of JasoosII is equipped witha steer-able day/low light camera pod capable of being steered 360 deg in azimuth and +/- 105 deg in elevation giving it the capability of panoramic viewing. Bravo+ is currently in production for the Pakistan Air Force as their primary work horse for UAV Operations and Training Program.
- Medium Range Pakistani UAV
Flamingo is a medium range UAV withan endurance of 6 to 8 hours witha payload carrying capacity of 30 Kg. Flamingo is equipped with an Avionics suite which controls the UAV during it’s beyond visual flight. The UAV flies a pre programmed path which has been fed into the onboard mission computer without any assistance from the Ground. The mission can be manually altered at any time during the flight by a short radio transmission from the ground. Flamingo’s operational radius is only constrained by the line-of-site data links. In case of silent operation, the UAV can reach 400 Km radial distance and return to base. The Line replacement unit architecture of the UAV makes it easy to maintain in field conditions without relying heavily on backup support.
Mukhbar Short Range
Mukhbar, is a scaled down version of Jassos II, to meet the operational requirement of a short range reconnaissance UAV. The UAV fuselage and wings are completely manufactured using non-metallic materials thus minimizing radar signature. The UAVis completely equipped with autopilot, telemetry, video transmitter and day light camera. The UAVcan be operated using a portable ground control station with waypoint navigation within a radius of 30-50 km.
The PAF has now developed its first Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAF). These unmanned drones will now be able to monitor the movement of enemies.

Pakistan last week successfully conducted a final test flight of its indigenously developed Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) “Uqaab,” according to an Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR) news release.

PAF inducts locally made UAV ISLAMABAD: The induction ceremony of the Pakistan-manufactured Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system was held at an operational Pakistan Air Force (PAF) base on Sunday. The UAV is an unmanned aircraft that is able to get closer to targets while remaining invisible to enemies.

“It is indeed a moment of great pride and satisfaction for all of us, as acquisition of this capability will certainly contribute towards augmenting our fighting potential,”said Chief of Air Staff Tanvir Mahmood Ahmed, who was the chief guest at the ceremony.

“In a future timeframe, the Pakistan Air Force is looking forward to equipping these Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with the most modern and lethal payloads, thereby enhancing their capability even further,” the air chief said. Commenting on the PAF’s modernisation, he said, “Upgradation and modernisation programme of the Pakistan Air Force are successfully progressing.

Induction of these air defence systems [UVAs] will make the PAF ready to meet future challenges.” The endurance capabilities of UAVs provides sustained support for more efficient and time-critical targeting, and missions requiring greater persistence than what can be offered by manned aircraft. staff report

The Pakistan Army recently tested an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) called Uqaab. The presence of Chief of the Army Staff General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani on the occasion shows how seriously the Pakistani military is taking the UAV concept in the modern day battlefield. While no specifications for the new UAV were issued, the high-profile presence of senior army officers on the occasion and the publicity that followed it made it clear that the new UAV was apparently a breakthrough over what the country had earlier produced in this field. “The flight data collected indicates that all design parameters have been successfully validated,” a statement issued on the occasion said, adding: “The performance of the UAV Uqaab can be compared to any of modern state-of-the-art UAV in its category. The successful flight test is a reflection of Pakistan’s technical prowess in the field of UAV technology.”There are several companies in Pakistan that are involved in UAV production.

One Pakistani firm, Integrated Dynamics of Pakistan, has made a unique hand-launched mini-rocket UAV, called Firefly. It is a high-speed, short-range observation system that can fly for eight seconds and costs around $3,000. Another UAV made by the same firm is called Desert Hawk, which has an endurance of two hours.Recent reports have revealed that Pakistan is also acquiring two types of UAV from Europe.These are a German EMT LUNA short-range battlefield reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition UAV and Italian Galileo Avionica’s Falco tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (TUAV).On the other hand, Turkey and Pakistan are also working on UAVs. In this regard, a letter of intent was signed between the TAI and the Air Weapons Complex (AWC) in 2007, under which the TAI would provide electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility tests of a flight control system and communication interface units for UAVs.

There is little doubt that UAVs are becoming increasingly important day by day. The US is the leader in UAV technology, followed by Israel and the European countries. However, the gap between the Americans and other nations in the technology is enormous and could not be met any time soon. While UAVs that can fly for up to 60 hours have been developed, the Americans are working on a UAV that would be maintenance-free and have an endurance of up to five years, giving them an unlimited advantage in terms of reconnaissance. At the moment, however, one of the most advanced UAVs is the 12,110kg Northrop Grumman’s Global Hawk that has a range of more than 22,000 kilometres.The Predator is yet another UAV that is being extensively used for combat and reconnaissance missions on the Pak-Afghan border and in Iraq. One report recently revealed that the US has 163 UAV programmes in operation, compared to 50 by France, 31 by Israel and 25 by Pakistan.Nevertheless, the journey to produce high-quality unmanned air vehicles is not going to be easy for Pakistan as it involves several daunting challenges.

First, it is essential that UAVs should have a very high operational reliability for the mission for which they are developed. One area in this respect is a good engine, which probably is the most difficult aspect in the designing of a UAV. Designers have to make sure that the engine can support the airframe, does not quit when it is most needed and does not give the UAV away. The engines should have low vibration and, therefore, a low signature.It should be able to support long-endurance missions over the target.Another area of operational reliability for a UAV comes from its airframe, which should be able to support the mission in all types of conditions, especially rough weather.

A different but a mammoth challenge comes in the shape of a UAV’s capability for precision-flying in terms of altitude and flight path so as not to compromise the mission. This, however, is not an easy task. The designers would have to make sure that the UAV can fly over the target for long durations and in adverse weather during day and night. An additional area would be the mating of the equipment on board, especially high-resolution cameras, the sensors.

As it is, UAVsare being developed for both military and civilian use. For example, UAVs are being used in dangerous situations like flying over active volcanoes, near hurricanes and tornadoes, regions of high radioactivity, over the poles and deserts, for fire-fighting, observation of civil disturbances and natural disasters. The result is that the UAV market is expanding at a fast pace, especially in the military sector, and is expected to reach around $15 billion by 2010. The issue of UAVs, regrettably, has also been used by the Americans to justify their attack on Iraq, duping their lawmakers and the UN. In 2002, US Secretary of State Colin Powell claimed that the Iraqis had transported their advanced UAVs to ships in the Atlantic Ocean to launch biological- and chemical-weapon attacks on the US East Coast. Iraq, meanwhile, did not have any UAVs, only a few outdated training drones. However, in December 2002, in the first-ever, though asymmetrical, dogfight, an Iraqi MiG-25 using a missile downed a US Predator.

While the armed forces have been using UAVson the border with India, the country also requires UAVs to monitor the movement of unwanted elements on its western borders, especially during the night. Also, UAVs would be greatly helpful in tracking the movement of smugglers and insurgents in Balochistan. On the other hand, the Indians, who have been concentrating on acquiring Israeli UAVs in the face of their not-so-successful indigenous programme, have been using them on the Pakistani borders. In June 2002, Pakistan shot down an Israeli-built Searcher Mark-II, which was on an Indian Air Force mission. It goes without saying that in the present geo-strategic situation, Pakistan needs to have its own fleet of modern unmanned aerial vehicles to which the future of the skies belongs. e writer is news editor, The News, Karachi. Email: abbasrizvi14@hotmail.com. UAV challenges By Ali Abbas Rizvi 3/28/2008US Orders 36 More RQ-7B Shadow UAVs, Support Services 11-May-2006 04:01 EDT


Shadow 200 in Iraq Since being deployed to Iraq at the outset of military operations in early 2003, Shadow UAV units have flown more than 17,000 sorties and 76,000 flight hours in support of U.S. and allied operations in Operation Iraqi Freedom. DID has covered some of those experiences and lessons learned.

Now United Industrial Corporation subsidiary AAI Corp. has received $152.7 million in contracts for 36 Shadow UAVs, associated systems, and support. Details re: the contracts, and systems, follow below….

RQ-7 Shadow UAVThe first contract is an $87.2 million funded contract from the U.S. Army for the production of nine additional Shadow 200 Tactical Unmanned Aircraft Systems (TUAS). The 9 systems include 36 advanced RQ-7B Shadow 200 UAVs, 18 One System® ground control stations, and associated components and support equipment, will be delivered between April 2007 – March 2008. Work will be performed in Hunt Valley, MD and is expected to be complete by Dec. 31, 2009. This was a sole source contract initiated on Jan. 11, 2006 by the Army Aviation and Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, AL (W31P4Q-06-C-0292).

This is the fourth consecutive full-rate production contract awarded to AAI since the U.S. Army first selected the Shadow for the TUAS role in December 1999. DID covrred one previous contract in August 2005, and noted the key upgrades in the RQ-7B model. The company has received production contracts for a total of 64 U.S. Army Shadow systems, bringing to 256 the total number of production Shadow 200 aircraft ordered (each system includes four aircraft). Forty-three systems (172 aircraft) have been delivered so far, and system deliveries now extend through March 2008.

 RQ-7 Shadow & details

In addition to the production of Shadow systems, AAI provides support and sustainment operations for fielded and deployed U.S. Army units. To which end, AAI also received a $65.6 million firm-fixed-price and cost-plus-incentive-fee contract for performance-based contractor logistics support for the Shadow TUAS Work will be performed in Hunt Valley, MD and is expected to be complete by Oct. 31, 2007. This was a sole source contract initiated on March 7, 2006 by the Army Aviation and Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, AL (W31P4Q-06-C-0256). 

On November 8, 2005, the U.S. Army Shadow Tactical UAV program earned a first-ever special achievement awardfrom the U.S. Defense Department for readiness and mission success during Operation Iraqi Freedom (“OIF”).

Crescent daggers
Pakistan’s “214 Subs” made in Karachi 5th Generation Su-35 spinoffs made in China as J-11s
Pakistan rapidly moving beyond basic JF-17 Thunders. The J-10s J-11s and newer versions of JF-17
Jointly Redesigned and upgraded Chinese J-10Bs built in Pakistan as FC-20s to be operationalized before 2015
The Pakistani hawks in the sky: Y-89 AWACS
Nothing succeeds like success: Hataf, Ghauri, Babar, Abdali missiles

JF-17 Thunders: Designed, built and operationalized in a record time of 4 years. Custom built for Pakistani needs The impact of Pakistan’s first indigenous JF-17 Thunder Squadron deployment

Serial production of JF-17 Thunder expedited:30-50 per year to 100 per annum
Beyond the Pakistani made JF-17 Thunder Fighter Plane, Chinese made J-10s.PAF next acquisition the J-11s?
Pakistan defense based on missile nuclear deterrent Hataf, Shaheen Babar and Abdali Hamza: Pakistan’s Augusta class Subs made in Karachi Pakistan’s 500 Al-Khalid tanks have been in production since 2001. Next generation tanks exported via IDEAS Pakistani made UAVs: Uqaab & Jasoos

3 New shipyards support Pakistani ship building & Frigates

Pakistan’s F-22 Frigates made in Karachi Chinese SAMs S-300s for Pakistan When with Iranian S-300s be operational? Why did Pakistan buy fewer F-16s?



    PAF: Nuclear armed deterrent to hegemonyPakistan already has a Nuclear Deal with China! India tried to raise expectations to portend failure!

  • Pakistan’s 250 JF-17s, 50 F-16: Indias panicky “concern”
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  • Indo Russian bickering disputes delay FGFA to stretch target in 2017
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  • Indian Airforce crying wolf? or facing shortage of jets?
  • Indian Airforce crying wolf? or facing shortage of jets?
  • South Asia Air Forces: PAF counters IAF strategy
  • The declining Indo-Russian relationship leaves Delhi scrambling for new arms sources—but they come with strings
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    1. jona said

      That was a nice read

    2. Kenneth said

      Super info! I

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